Researching Indigenous Soldiers in WW1

Harry Doyle, page 26 Queenslander, 8 September 1917.

Harry Doyle, page 26 Queenslander, 8 September 1917.

It is estimated that 1,200 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men and women volunteered for the AIF during WW1. It should be remembered that this was a time when Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were not recognised as Australian citizens and suffered under the strict policies and practices of the Protection Era. The Defence Act initially excluded Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people from enlisting – resulting in many Indigenous people enlisting under assumed ethnicity/cultural backgrounds. Some even changed their names, place of birth and other personal details to enlist! Fortunately, there are some historical sources and recent research activities that can help communities uncover their Indigenous soldiers.

Page 26 Queenslander, 28 July 1917.

Page 26 Queenslander, 28 July 1917.

The recent digitisation of the Queenslander Newspaper and uploading of images to One Search has broadened this research to identify potential soldier who may not appear in lists of Indigenous soldiers. It has also enabled families and researchers to put a face to a soldier's name.

Screenshot from SLQ's Indigenous Soldiers listing.

Screenshot from SLQ's Indigenous Soldiers listing.

State Library through their Q ANZAC 100 project has been steadily working towards identifying Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander soldiers but also supporting the research of communities and individuals.  The above image is from a list of known Indigenous soldiers - a webpage on the State Library's website provides a guide to those soldiers who enlisted from communities and regional centres. This research guide was originally developed for Indigenous Knowledge Centres (IKCs) to coincide with the 2014 NAIDOC Week theme of 'Serving Country: centenary and beyond'.

George Ryan. Service No Q12547 / Q23574.

George Ryan. Service No Q12547 / Q23574.

Since then, the list has steadily grown with further research adding names to the existing research of Philippa Scarlett, David Huggonson, Australian War Memorial and others. Some of these were previously unknown; for example George Ryan whose photo appears in both the Queenslander and Northern Herald newspapers. In May 1918, George was working on Bowie Station via Pentland when he enlisted a second time - his next of kin being the property owner Harold Herrod. George was assigned to the 5th Reinforcements to Egypt, however he did not get the opportunity to serve overseas as his period enlistment was terminated on 31 December 1918.

AWM P01074.001, 3rd Reinforcements LHR to Egypt.

AWM P01074.001, 3rd Reinforcements LHR to Egypt.

Private George Ryan is only one story of the many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men who volunteered or enlisted in the first AIF.  Often there are only photos of Aboriginal men as the sole reminder of their war service - Trooper Frederick Coolwell is shown above in this AWM photograph of the 3rd Reinforcements Light Horse to Egypt. If you have further information to add to the stories of Indigenous soldiers, please contact the State Library of Queensland.


Desmond Crump

Indigenous Languages Coordinator, Queensland Memory


Further Reading

Pratt, R. (1993) Biographical register of Queensland Aborigines who served in the Great War, 1914-1918. P 940.403 pra

Queensland's Indigenous Servicemen Digital Story and Oral History 2015. Digital Story 29841

Ration Shed Museum (2015) The boys from Barambah: The story of the black diggers of Barambah-Cherbourg of World War 1. JUVQ 940.400899915 NEW

Scarlett, P. (2011) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander volunteers for the AIF: the Indigenous response to World War One. Q 940.40994 SCA

Winegard, T. C. (2012) Indigenous peoples of the British dominions and the First World War. 940.341 2012


Online Sources

Australian War Memorial, Photograph P01074.001, 3rd Reinforcements to Egypt.

State Library of Queensland - Find your soldier webpage

State Library of Queensland - Indigenous Participation in WW 1 webpages

State Library of Queensland History Pin - Indigenous Enlistment


Q ANZAC 100 Community Projects

Black Diggers of Logan : Logan Library commemorates the Aboriginal, Torres Strait and Australian South Sea Islanders who fought alongside their comrades despite not being officially counted as people of their own nation during the First World War. Website:  HistoryPin Project:,153.104251,4/bounds/-55.177881,126.385501,8.843359,179.823001

Boys from Barambah: The Story of the black diggers of Barambah-Cherbourg of World War 1 :  Commemorates the men from Barambah Mission and their involvement in WW1. Website:

Stradbroke 100: North Stradbroke Island’s First World War Soldiers and the Homefront Exhibition and accompanying booklet that explored the war experiences and post-war lives of 22 soldiers, including 14 men who were Aboriginal. Website:




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Indigenous soldiers in World War I - were certainly the forgotten soldiers - good to see material now being written about their experiences and contributions made.

Thanks Greg - lots of untold stories to uncover.Cheers,Des.

There were at least 8 Indigenous men in the 52nd Battalion AIF (five from Queensland ) yet until recently the Australian War Memorial 52nd Battalion Unit History didn't even any acknowledge any Queensland participation in the 52nd!

Thanks Dale - I have 9 Aboriginal soldiers who trained in Brisbane who served some time in 52nd Bn; 2 of these from Northern NSW, rest from Queensland. Cheers, Des.

This is fantastic that more is written about Aboriginal WW1 soldiers. My Great, great grandparents grandson enlisted March 1915. He died of his wounds on the Western Front in Belgium. He was a Gamilaroi/Murri lad from Boomi NSW. Both his parents were Gamilaroi AngloCeltic. His name is John Alfred Richards. I have all his army records. Happy to give you this information to add to this fantastic history. As a practicing artist I would like to have permission to access the history of many of these soldiers. So that I can draw attention to the significance through large scale artworks. Thanks,Caroline

CarolineThanks very much for the information - Philippa Scarlett has included John Alfred Richards [Service No. 601] and his brother George Henry Richards [Service No. 602] as well as a cousin Cecil Samuel Maurer [Service No. 259] on an updated list of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander soldiers in WW1: State Library would love to hear more about John's story, I think Philippa would also like to contact you to include his story. Regards,Des.


Hi Des - can you give me the names of the men who you believed served in the 52nd - especially those from Northern NSW. We believe we have have a complete Nominal Rollfro the 52nd and I would like to check against it. Cheer. Dale

Hello DaleI will send an email with names of soldiers.Cheers,Des.