Australian South Sea Islanders

To mark the contribution of Australian South Sea Islanders to Queensland for the past 150 years, State Library of Queensland has engaged with many interested people, in particular members of the Australian South Sea Islander Community to explore collection materials, to digitise content for world-wide access and to develop workshops, programs, discussions, tours and a wide range of exhibitions throughout the State this past year.

Resilient and Vibrant Culture

Today’s Australian South Sea Islanders have a special place in Queensland’s cultural diversity and history.  They are the descendants of South Sea Islanders brought to Queensland from 1863 to 1904 from 80 Melanesian islands to work the State’s cotton and sugar plantations.  The 62,000 men, women and children were considered a cheap source of labour, with many being kidnapped, tricked or blackbirded.  By 1908, many had been deported under the “White Australia” policy and those who remained suffered harsh treatment and discrimination.  Today, Australian South Sea Islanders have a unique identity in Queensland, which is embedded in a rich heritage and vibrant culture.

To mark the contribution of Australian South Sea Islanders to Queensland for the past 150 years, State Library of Queensland has engaged with many interested people, in particular members of the Australian South Sea Islander Community to explore collection materials, to digitise content for world-wide access and to develop workshops, programs, discussions, tours and a wide range of exhibitions throughout the State this past year.  This included Memories from a Forgotten People, a major collaborative project between the State Library of Queensland, Queensland Art Gallery l Gallery of Modern Art, recognising this important year in Queensland’s history.  A hidden history with many difficult stories, this rich contribution to Queensland heritage will now be remembered for longevity through blogs, events and everyday recognition.

During 2013, State Library of Queensland, with input from many stake holders, put together a selection of digitised historic content that depicts the story of Melanesians brought to Queensland to work in the sugar and cotton plantations and is developing a more recent recollection of the Australian South Sea Islander Community today through contemporary stories and imagery.

Bittersweet Journey

Photographs from the John Oxley Library reveal the multiple layers of Australian South Sea Islanders’ experience during the 19th and early 20th centuries in Queensland. Captured through the lens of time, we see the cultural diversity and contribution to heritage made by Islanders who were brought to Queensland as indentured labourers from 1863 through 1904. Many of the indentured labourers were young boys in their early teens who were coerced to Queensland by dubious and unethical means, with use of trickery and kidnapping often reported. We see transformation of cultural identity reflected in physical changes of dress and in the societal changes of work and play. Many of the images depict very difficult and dangerous work conditions as well as the everyday of the boys, men, women and children. From work to marriage to family life, much is revealed, allowing us access to this fraught part of Queensland’s history some 150 years later and to fully realise the significant contribution made to our collective heritage.

The Written Truth

Heritage maps from the John Oxley Library show the world as it was depicted in the early 1860s through the early 1900s when South Sea Islanders arrived by vessel from nearby islands to work as indentured labourers in Queensland. Over time the maps change, the spelling of names, the addition of islands and more. Information about the practice of indentured labour can be realised today from the monographs written by missionaries at the time. These volatile missives extoled the virtues of missionary work in the Melanesian Islands while condemning the practice of indentured servitude in Queensland as “slave labour” to the world. Further historical truths are revealed with the passage of monumental government policies: the White Australia Act and the Pacific Islanders Labourers Act, both of 1901. A Royal Commission was formed in 1906 to provide an humane review about the ordered mandatory deportation of Islanders, following the 1901 acts that forbade Islanders to be employed in Queensland.

Australian South Sea Islanders Today

More than 1000 contemporary images donated by photographer Brian Rogers to the State Library of Queensland begins to document the people and places that make up the many Australian South Sea Islander communities along Queensland's coast.In 2000, an exhibition called Refined White was developed by the Australian Sugar Industry Museum in Mourilyan in north Queensland. During its development, a suite of contemporary black and white images was taken to complement a selection of historical images from the John Oxley Library. These images reflected the themes of Work, Family, Food, Religion, and Recreation. This collection of images is the first major contribution of Australian South Sea Islander life to the State Library’s collection since the early historical images dating back to 150 years ago.

Memories from A Forgotten People

Compelling conversations have been captured in emotional and powerful storytelling from the descendants of the first Australian South Sea Islanders at State Library of Queensland. who have come together to tell their stories about what the 150-year heritage anniversary means to them. Beginning in 1863, some 62,000 people were kidnapped or taken from South Sea Islands to work in the sugar and cotton industries in Queensland. By 1908, these same people faced compulsory “repatriation” to the islands under the White Australia Policy and the Pacific Island Labourers Act of 1901. Those remained often suffered harsh treatment and discrimination

Resources

After recognition : access and equity for Australian South Sea Islanders, Steve Mullins. Rockhampton, Qld : Rural Social and Economic Research Centre, Central Queensland University : <1996>

The blackbirders : the recruiting of south seas labour for Queensland, 1863-1907 / Edward Wybergh Docker <Sydney> : Angus and Robertson, <1970>

Captain Robert Towns (1794-1873) : a short biography of the man who first introduced the ’Kanakas’ to Queensland and gave his name to the City of Townsville / written by Pam Carver. Townsville, Qld. : Maritime Museum of Townsville, c1992. ISBN: 0646097733

Cindie : a chronicle of the canefields / Jean Devanny 1894-1962. London : Robert Hale : 1949

The Cordonnier : pioneering days on Queensland's canefields / Norman Earl Buettel 1915- . London ; Sydney : Angus & Robertson : 1984, c1977. Chapter 11 Blackbirding and Chapter 12 Kanakas

The cruise of the ’Rosario’ amongst the New Hebrides and Santa Cruz Islands, exposing the recent atrocities connected with the kidnapping of natives in the South Seas / by Albert Hastings Markham. London : Sampson Low, Martson, Low and Searle, 1873

Extracts from the baptism register for kanakas. Christ Church (Bundaberg, Qld.). Bundaberg : 1881-1893

Faith : Faith Bandler, gentle activist / Marilyn Lake. Crows Nest, N.S.W. : Allen & Unwin, 2002. ISBN: 1865088412

Hambledon Plantation (about 1889) / Allan McInnes 1927- Cairns Historical Society. Cairns : Cairns Historical Society : 1982. ISBN: 0959451013

Hello, Johnny! : stories of my Aboriginal and South Sea Islander family / Mabel Edmund 1930- . Rockhampton, Qld : Central Queensland University Press : 1996. ISBN: 1875998098

History and the South Sea Islanders on the Tweed / Itong, Johnny, 1908- Coolangatta, Qld. : Johnny Itong, 1994. ISBN: 0646217496

The history of Bundaberg : a typical Queensland agricultural settlement / by J.Y. Walker. Bundaberg ; Brisbane : W.C. Aiken : Gordon and Gotch, 1890

History of kanakas in Bowen / Vanessa Marie Corowa ; Bowen Historical Society and Museum. 1991

Hurricane lamps and blue umbrellas : a history of the shire of Johnstone to 1973 / Dorothy Jones. Cairns, Qld. : G. K. Bolton Printers : 1973. ISBN: 0909920040

Kanaka : a history of Melanesian Mackay / Clive Moore 1951- . Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies Port Moresby, PNG : Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies and / University of Papua New Guinea Press : 1985. ISBN: 9980680008 

The Kanaka, or : how the Queensland planters get and treat their... / W. Gray (William ). Adelaide : Wigg : 1895. Xerox copy

Kanakas, kidnapping and slavery : myths from the nineteenth century labour trade and their relevance to Australian Melanesians. Clive Moore. 1981. Photocopy of article from ’Kabar Seberang: Sulating Maphilindo, No.8-9, 1981, p.78-92

Kanakas - labour of love / Gistitin, Carol. Rockhampton, Qld. : St. John’s Church, 1989. ISBN: 0731671643 

Kanake : the Melanesian way / J.M. Tjibaou, Ph. Missotte ; photographs: M.Folco, C. Rives ; original French text translated by Christopher Plant, with the collaboration of the University of the South Papeete, Tahiti : Les editions du pacifique, c1978

Kidnapping in the south seas : being a narrative of a three month’s cruise of H.M. Ship Rosaria / by George Palmer.Edinburgh : Edmonston and Douglas, 1871 

[Log of ’Nautilus’, Nov. 16, 1887 - Apr. 15, 1888] / Joseph Edward Hawkins.Nautilus (Barque). Copy of original manuscript made by Captain Charles Carter, Sydney, 1962

Me no go Mally Bulla : recruiting and blackbirding in the Queensland labour trade 1863-1906 / Wal Bird (Wal F.), 1926- Charnwood, A.C.T. : Ginninderra Press : 2005

The mountain tops of Lemuria : the kanaka, a remnant : a problem for federated Australia / Harold Maclure. Bundaberg, <Qld.> : G. J. Young & Co. : 1901

My wife and I in Queensland : an eight years’ experience in the above colony, with some account of Polynesian labour / Charles H. Eden. London : Longmans, Green, 1872

On Plantation Creek : a community history of the Australian South Sea Islanders in the Burdekin Area / Lincoln Hayes Burdekin (Qld. : Shire). Council. Ayr, Qld. : Burdekin Shire Council : 2001

Pioneer pageant : a history of the Pioneer Shire / John Kerr 1942-2003 Pioneer (Qld.). Council Mackay <Qld.> : Pioneer Shire Council : 1980. Chapter 10 Melanesian Muscle

Seven versions of an Australian badland / Ross Gibson 1956-. St Lucia, Qld. : University of Queensland Press : 2002. Chapter 6 provides an overview of Melanesian labour in Queensland

Slave trade in the New Hebrides : being papers read at the annual meeting of the New Hebrides Mission held at Aniwa, July 1871 / edited by John Kay. Edinburgh : Edmonston & Douglas, 1872

Slavers of the South Seas / Thomas Dunbabin 1883- . Sydney : Angus & Robertson : 1935

The South Sea Islanders and the Queensland labour trade : a record of voyages and experiences in the western Pacific from 1875 to 1891 / William T. Wawn (William Twizell), 1837-1901. W Hay (William Delisle), b. 1851. London : Swan Sonnenschein & Co. : 1893

Queensland Canefields English of the late nineteenth century : (a record of interview with two of the last surviving Kanakas in North Queensland, 1964) T. E. Dutton (Thomas Edward), Canberra : Dept. of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University : 1980

Quite a colony : South Sea Islanders in Central Queensland, 1867-1993 / Carol Gistitin. Brisbane : Aebis : 1995

Refined white : the story of how South Sea Islanders came to cut sugar cane in Queensland and made history refining the White Australia policy / Michael Berry Australian Sugar Industry Museum. Innisfail, Qld. : Australian Sugar Industry Museum : 2000

Sherlock Holmes in Australia / Ken Methold. Chippendale, N.S.W. : Pan, 1991. Cover subtitle: The adventure of the kidnapped Kanakas

South Sea Islanders came to Buderim / Hessie Lindsel; Buderim Historical Society. <Buderim, Qld.> : Buderim Historical Society Inc. : c1995

The sugar slaves : a novel of the Queensland kanakas / John P. McD. Smith. Henley Beach, S. Aust. : Seaview Press : 2002

Sweet tea / Brian Ridden. South Melbourne : Lothian : 2002

This dawning land / Tony Matthews 1949- . Brisbane : Boolarong : 1986

3 among many : a collection of life stories from Mackay’s Aboriginal, Torres Strait and Australian South Sea Islander elders / compiled by Justin Doyle, Grahame Fatnowna, Teleai Ketchell Publication: Mackay, Qld : Info Pub, 2000

Trinity phoenix : a history of Cairns and district / Dorothy Jones Archibald Meston 1851-1924; Cairns and District Centenary Committee. Cairns, Q. : Cairns and District Centenary Committee : 1976

Wacvie / <by> Faith Bandler. Adelaide ; Rigby, 1977

What I know of the labour traffic. Duffield, A. J. Brisbane : Watson, Ferguson & Co., 1884

A White Australia : the Kanaka labor question : sugar growing in Queensland ... a Herald investigation. Melbourne : Herald : 1901

White Kanakas : a novel / by L.J. Wojcicki. New York ; Sydney : Transglobal Books Distribution, c1993

Workers in bondage : the origins and bases of unfree labour in Queensland, 1824-1916 / Kay Saunders . St. Lucia : University of Queensland Press, <1981>

Acts and regulations on Kanaka labour, Queensland, Federal and Imperial. [Pacific Island Labourers Acts. ] Queensland Australia. n.p. : 19

Australian South Sea Islander community :  Queensland government action plan. Queensland. Dept.of the Premier and Cabinet. Brisbane : Queensland Government, Dept. of the Premier and Cabinet : 2001

Australian South Sea Islanders: A Report on the Current Status of South Sea Islanders in Australia, February 1991. Evatt Foundation. 750a George Street, Sydney 2000

The call for recognition : a report on the situation of Australian South Sea Islanders. Australia. Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission. Canberra : Australian Govt.Publishing Service : 1993

Copy of correspondence respecting outrages committed upon natives of the south sea islands. Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons. <London : s.n.> 1874

Copy of extracts of all correspondence relating to the importation of South Sea Islanders into Queensland. Great Britain. Colonial Office, London : H.M.S.O. 1869

Correspondence relating to Polynesian labour in the Colony of Queensland, with appendices. Great Britain. Colonial Office. London : H.M.S.O., 1892.

Notes:    Includes Sir Samuel Griffith’s Manifesto to the people of Queensland published in the Brisbane Courier, 13th Feb. 1892

A few facts in connection with the employment of Polynesian labour in Queensland. M. Hume Black. London : [Qld. government], 1894

Further correspondence relating to Polynesian labour in the Colony of Queensland Main Author: Great Britain. Colonial Office Publication: London : H.M.S.O., 1893

Further correspondence relating to the importation of South Sea Islanders into Queensland. Great Britain. Colonial Office. London : 1871

Imperial and colonial acts relating to the Pacific Island labour trade, and regulations and instructions for the guidance of Government agents appointed under the Pacific Island labourers act of 1880. Queensland.; Great Britain. Brisbane : Acting Government Printer : 1884

Imperial and colonial acts relating to the recuiting, etc., of Pacific Island labourers, and regulations made there under; together with instructions for the guidance of government agents appointed to accompany vessels licensed to carry pacific Islanders, Brisbane : James C. Beal, Government Printer, 1892

Importation of South Sea Islanders into Queensland. New South Wales. Parliament Publication: <S.l. : New South Wales Parliament, 1868-9>

Kanakas - deportation of : copy of correspondence between the Prime Minister and the Premier of Queensland (23rd July to 3rd August 1906) and Departmental memorandum. Australia. Parliament. <Melbourne> : Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia : 1906

Kidnapping in South Sea Islands : circular despatch with instructions to Commodore for suppression of  New South Wales. Parliament. Sydney : Thomas Richards, Government Printer : 1872

Pacific Island labourers : Statement showing the number of Islanders returned and the number of exemptions, etc Australia. Parliament Publication: <Melbourne> : Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, 1908

Reintroduction of Polynesian Labour into Queensland / J. T Critchell (James Troubridge), 1850-1917. Lond. : British Australasian Office : 1892

Report of the proceedings of H.M. Ship ’Rosario’ during her cruise among the South Sea Islands between 1st November 1871 and 12th February 1872.Markham, Albert Hastings, London : H.M.S.O., 1872 - Eyre & Spottiswoode

Report, together with minutes of evidence and proceedings of the commission and appendices. Queensland. Royal Commission on the Sugar Industry. ;William Henry Groom. Brisbane : Govt. Print :1889

Report ... together with the minutes of proceedings, minutes of evidence taken before the Commission, and appendices. Queensland. Royal Commission to Inquire into and Report upon the Deportation and Repatriation of Pacific Islanders, and the Sufficiency of Labour for the Queensland Sugar Industry. R. A Ranking (Robert Archibald), 1843-1912. Brisbane : George Arthur Vaughan, Government Printer :1906

Sugar Industry Labour Royal Commission (Regarding the number of Pacific Islanders to be deported from Queensland at the end of 1906 etc). In Parliamentary papers, Queensland. 1906, Volume 2, pages 467-911

A large number of photographs are held at State Library. Some of these are included in large personal collections of individuals, in the form of photograph albums or original photographs.

27276 Sepia toned and mounted miscellaneous photographs 1890. Summary/Contents:  Large collection of sepia toned and mounted photographs probable from an album. Images include Cairns-Kuranda railway, sugar industry, Indigenous people in Cairns, Chillagoe Caves, Brisbane suburbs, South Sea Islanders, fig trees at Noosa and Cairns. (One Photograph only). Boxes 15715 O/S and 15716 O/S

6298 Brandon Photograph Album 1864-1884. Henry, Brandon 1845-1899. 1864. Photograph album containing early images of Mackay and sugar plantations in the area. Box 14821 O/S

7697 Albumen paper prints of Bundaberg 1898. Abstract: Fourteen albumen paper prints of the Bundaberg sugar industry. Box 14761 O/S. 4 (?) photos of ASSI

3299 Newton Barton Diary 1894-1895. A shipboard diary kept by able seaman Newton Barton on one of his voyages to the South Sea Islands aboard the brigantine "Rio Loge." The purpose of the voyage was to recruit South Sea Islanders to work on the Queensland canefields. Box 5317

M 996  W. R. Love Papers Abstract: W.R. Love collection. Log books of ships "Heath" and "Clansman", both of which were used for transporting Kanakas. Boxes 5052 and 5137 (item 2)

10020 Conrad M. Kelsall and Alfred M. Stephens Correspondence 1894-1903 Kelsall, Conrad M. and Stephens, Alfred M. Twenty letters with various mentions of….”colonial views of the Boer War, the status of Kanakas and the ‘White Australia’ policy after Federation, involvement in the shooting of a local Malay, et al. The letters also contain wonderful contemporary social commentary.” Box 15354 O/S A2

OM75-117 Joseph Dixon Diary 1875-1928 Abstract: Diary of Joseph Dixon who was a sugar cane grower in the Mooloolah River district. Box 8948. The diary gives a daily account of the events on the sugar plantation, including the building and operation of the sugar mill. The diary covers the period November 1875 - June 1895. In his reminiscences, Joseph Dixon tells of his voyage on the 'Tornado' in 1864 to Australia, and time spent in Sydney. In 1869 he took up land on the Mooloolah River to grow sugar cane, and later at Buderim Mountain. He discusses the Aborigines at Mooloolah River and the Kanakas working the sugar plantation. Box 8948

APE-25 Cowley Photograph Album ca. 1902. Album of photographs relating to the Innisfail (Geraldtown) area. Several photos, including copy prints of ASSI. Box 10740

6940 James Arthur Papers. Letters and documents of James Arthur, a Queenslander who worked as a recruiter of native labourers in the Pacific Islands. Arthur was murdered by disaffected islanders at Malayta in the Solomon Islands in 1900. Box 14302

M 1382 Cutting Books Abstract: Cutting books on miscellaneous topics. Newspaper cuttings book 1846 - 1943 on miscellaneous topics. Topics include Boer War, WWII, Aborigines, weather, kanakas, Freemasonry, Indooroopilly Bridge, Antarctic exploration, plus others. Box 8163

OM91-58 Central Queensland Clippings 1948-1954 Abstract: Three cutting books relating to Central Queensland. Volumes 2 and 3 also include the column by 'Historicus' from the Rockhampton Morning Bulletin dealing with Central Queensland history. Volume 2:  delivery of Kanakas to pastoral stations. Volume 3 1950-1954; similar material to Vol. 2. Boxes 9246 O/S (item 1) and 9247 O/S (item 2)

OM64-02 Thomas Glassey Papers 1903-1909; 1930s. Founding leader of the Australian Labor Party – items include content from the 1901 Parliamentary Papers and a manifesto on the White Australia Policy. Box 8397

2967 Rawson Family Archive.  Large album containing photographs of Rawson family properties in England and Queensland, views of Mackay area, kanakas and aborigines. The Rawson brothers Charles Collison Rawson, Edmund Rawson and Lancelot Rawson established the cattle station "The Hollow" on the Pioneer River at Mackay in 1866. The Rawsons were also involved in the sugar and coal industries. Box 4376

3361 Daphne Kingston Papers 1928- Abstract: Papers of Daphne Kingston. 3361/25: Ten Postcards depicting various subjects in Mackay, North Queensland; Japanese cutting tramway,family groups on bank of Pioneer River, Kanaka groups. 3361/42: Six Photographs of Habanna, North Queensland, 1991. Images include Pinnacle Rock, building said to be old shop built for Kanakas, original convent and Mt Jukes. Boxes 5573 - 5574

10144 Papua and New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and the South Sea Islanders Cutting Book 1906-1944. A cutting book, compiled between 1906 and 1908, with newspaper clippings and photographs about the Solomon Islands, New Guinea and the South Sea Islanders. The clippings and photographs cover topics such as: the island of Samarai; commercial activities of Burns, Philp and Co.; alcohol prohibition; Woodlark Island and the mining industry; coconut tree plantations; German presence in the area; missionaries; the repatriation of the South Sea Islanders. Box 15374 O/S A3

APU-5 Album of views of Brisbane and North Queensland ca. 1895 Mathewson & Co. Abstract: Album of scenes in Brisbane and North Queensland. 1 photo in red album “Cutting sugar cane Fairy Mead”. Box 11438 O/S A3

27024 Photograph of Solomon and Sangow Headstone 1989. McCormack, John S. Abstract: One photograph of a grave at the Fairymead Sugar Plantation, Bundaberg. 1 colour photo. BOX 15537

7893 Scenery of Queensland by E.H.Forster ca. 1870 Abstract: Album of photographs. 1 photo showing men planting in field. Box 14911 O/S A3

APA-8  Views of Bundaberg, Queensland, ca. 1897 Abstract: Album of views of Bundaberg. 2 images in small red album. Box 10955

APO-22 Views of Townsville and Herbert River Photograph Album 1874-1882 Abstract: Album of views of Townsville and the Herbert River area. Images of ASSI some which have been reproduced in the copy prints (group images of boys in white clothing). Box 10924. O/S

APO-41 Views of Mackay ca. 1895 Abstract: Album of views of Mackay and district. 1 image of large group of ASSI. Box 14466 O/S A3

APO-25 Photograph Album of Cairns Views 1890-1896 Abstract: Album of photographs of the Cairns area. About 4 ASSI’s images. Box 11496 O/S A3

7868 Rev William Smith Family Photographs 1890-1942; 1988 1851-1917 Photographs and exercise books. 1 photo in a packet of 7686 (marked in pencil with a 1) two ASSI men. Box 10070. Box 14911 O/S A3

API-6 Queensland Views Photograph Album ca. 1890. Abstract: Album of photographs of Queensland Views. Box 10738 O/S (A3). 6 photos. Box 10738 O/S (A3)

APO-32 Queensland Views Photograph Album 1867-1908 Mobsby, Henry William. Department of Agriculture and Stock. Abstract: Album of photographs of views of Queensland. 3 or 4 photos in large album. Box 10891 O/S A3

6147 Trackson Family Photograph Albums 1879-1939. Abstract: Trackson family albums including images of their home in Brisbane, their motor vehicle which was the first in Brisbane, and their travels interstate and abroad. 1 image in large black album of ASSI’s outside large building at Bingera – also in copy prints. 2 images in small red album. Box 10768

7355 Brisbane and Mackay Photographic Collection 1870 - 1880 Boag & Mills. Abstract: 43 albumen prints and 19 cartes de visite. Quite a few – some of individual men (with names at bottom of image). Box 14290 O/S

APO-8 Album of North Queensland Views: ca. 1890 Abstract: Album of views of the north and north west Queensland. 2 photographs – one a large group and the other 2 men in traditional dress(one with very large earrings) – both in copy prints. Box 10767 O/S (A3)

APU-25 Hambledon Sugar Plantation Photograph Album ca. 1890. Abstract: Album of photographs of the Hambledon Sugar Plantation and Cairns Railway Line. Quite a few images (some in copy prints). Box 11450 O/S

APO-18 Album of Richard Daintree Photographs 1860-1870 Abstract: Album of photographs, predominantly of Queensland, taken by Richard Daintree. Bib no: 396456. Box 10873 O/S (wrapped parcel)

APO-13 Richard Daintree Album ca. 1870. Box 11496 O/S A3

6166 Appel Photograph Albums  1900 - 1916 Stark, William & Skyring, C.F. White's Hill Studio. Abstract: Three albums presented to G J Appel, Minister for Home Affairs 1909-1915. 3 images in large black album. Box 10854

7375 Souvenir Photograph Album of The Northern Tour of the Hon. J. G. Appel 1914. Box 9711 O/S A3

7870 New Guinea Photographs 1930-1935. Abstract: One large grey album of original prints and some loose pages of photographs. Boxes 14633 O/S and 14911 O/S (A3)

API-35 Queensland, 1862-1899, Photograph Album 1862-1899. Box 10955

4834 William Hamilton diaries publication. This collection consists of an unpublished manuscript entitled "The Diaries of William Hamilton 1882-83, to the New Hebrides, the Solomons and New Britain and New Ireland edited by W. Ross Johnston. The collection also consists of artwork for Ross Johnston's "Diaries of Blackbirder" which consists of a series of photographs and maps. Box 10891 O/S A3